Frank Lloyd Wright designed Hollyhock House as part of a commission from oil heiress Louise Aline Barnsdall to create an avant-garde theatre and cultural complex called Olive Hill. Of the entire complex, only the residence and two apartments were completed. Located in the East Hollywood neighbourhood of Los Angeles, Hollyhock House was completed between 1919 and 1921.
Hollyhock House Technical Information
- Architects: Frank Lloyd Wright | Wright’s Work
- Location : Los Angeles, California, United States
- Material : Stucco
- Typology: Residential Architecture / House
- Scale : 2 stories + basement
- Project Year : 1919-1921
- Photographs : © ArchEyes Team and others
Simplicity is difficult to comprehend nowadays. It is now valiant to be simple, a courageous thing to even want to be simple. It is a spiritual thing to comprehend what simplicity means.
– Frank Lloyd Wright
Hollyhock House Photographs
It all began when Wright and Barnsdall selected a 36-acre site known as Olive Hill to build her version of a theater campus where she would live with her young daughter Elizabeth. Her ideal plans included an actor’s dormitory, theater, director’s house, artist studio, shops, and a motion picture theater. However, during construction, multiple financial disagreements and personality differences between the two led to her firing Wright in 1921.
In response to Barnsdall’s request for a “half house, half garden”, the home is arranged around a central courtyard. At one end it opens to a circular pool with a fountain in the middle, which is wrapped by semi-circular seating. He clearly designed the massive residence with LA’s enviable weather in mind: the entire home surrounds a courtyard and each indoor space is mirrored by a connected outdoor counterpart. The upper level provides access to rooftop terraces, which are linked by bridges and staircases and offer impressive views to Los Angeles basin and the Hollywood Hills.
Inside, spaces transition from tight corridors to large and open-plan rooms. Once completed, the huge house included seventeen rooms and seven bathrooms.
Wright turned to pre-Columbian Mexico for inspiration for the project, giving the exterior of the home the look of an ancient temple. These can be seen in the home’s inclined upper walls and colonnades, which bear a similarity to the shapes of temples in Palenque, a Mayan city state in southern Mexico built during the seventh century AD. While the place touts a slew of other unique features, from its 250 pound cast concrete doors to camouflaged locks to art glass windows throughout, it also gives lots of nods to Barnsdall’s favorite flower, the Hollyhock.
Since Wright was simultaneously working on the Japanese Imperial Hotel, and with the approval from Barnsdall, he incorporated many Japanese details in the design of the Hollyhock House, including a set of authentic 18th-century Japanese screens. Since the originals were stolen during the house’s “dark years,” the ones seen in this article are reproductions. Along with the Japanese screens in the living room, there’s also a Buddhist sculpture at the end of a long hallway that’s lined with art glass.
The massive fireplace is the home’s most drool-worthy feature, with its abstract Hollyhock motif etched into the cast concrete; the hearth was also meant for a grander purpose. It represents the element of fire, while the concrete is Earth, the skylight above represents air, and a pool below (that is now empty) serves as water.
The house itself is formed by hollow clay and covered with stucco, a common building material used in Southern California. Though this technique had been utilized to build L.A.’s City Hall and many other buildings of the era, Wright was being experimental considering his past work with more organic processes.
As Wright’s first house in Southern California, it marked a change from the Prairie style he had explored in the American Midwest and “consummated” in his 1910 Robie House in Chicago.
This residence marks one of the earliest examples of Mayan Revival, a modern architectural style that grew in the 1920s and 1930s. Wright also used the stacked shape of a Mesoamerican pyramid to inform his Imperial Hotel in Tokyo and is known as a key leader of the movement.
Because the architect was designing the Imperial Hotel in Japan at the same time, he left a lot of decisions to his son, the lesser-known Lloyd Wright, and the Austrian-born American architect Rudolph Schindler.
Towards the end, Barnsdall fired Wright from the project and the house was finished by Schindler, who later urged Richard Neutra to join him in Los Angeles. Afterwards the trio – Wright, Schindler and Neutra – all created projects in the Californian modernist style.
Over the years the residence fell into disrepair, as a result of earthquakes and design faults. In the early 2000s, Project Restore undertook a major renovation of the residence and it reopened to the public in 2015.
Barnsdall never lived in the house; instead, she donated it and the surrounding 11 acres to the city in 1927 so that it could be used as a public park in memory of her father. It became Barnsdall Art Park, which also has a nearby art gallery and community art center.
On July 7 the house became Los Angeles first UNESCO World Heritage Site, part of an homage to eight Wright designs, including Fallingwater in Mill Run, Pa., and the Guggenheim Museum in New York City.